Malumphy, C.P., & Badmin, J.S. 2012 Scale Insects and Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Coccoidea and Aleyrodoidea) of Watsonian Kent; with a Discussion on the Impact of Naturalised Non-native species. British Journal of Entomology and Natural History 25:15-49
Notes: An annotated list of 79 species of Coccoidea (37 native, 16 naturalised introductions, 17 introduced species established on indoor plantings and 9 nonestablished introductions on growing plants), and 17 species of Aleyrodoidea (five native, six naturalised introductions, two introduced species established on indoor plantings and four non-established introductions on growing plants), recorded from Watsonian Kent is presented. The mealybug Balanococcus kwoni Pellizzari & Danzig, an Asian pest of bamboo, is recorded from Britain for the first time. Eleven species of scale insect and seven species of whitefly are recorded outdoors from Watsonian Kent for the first time. A third of all scale insect species and half the whitefly species found outdoors in Watsonian Kent are non-native introductions. None of the introduced species, however, appear to have any serious negative impact on native biodiversity, ecosystems, forestry or crops, although they do have an economic and aesthetic impact on ornamental plants in urban areas. Diaspidiotus pyri (Lichtenstein) has been recorded as an occasional, minor pest of apple; and the presence of non-native scales on ornamental plants has prevented the issuing of plant-passports for export. Naturalised non-native scale insect species are more abundant and frequently more damaging to ornamental plants in urban areas than native scale species. This is due in part to the frequency of non-native host plants in urban areas. The most common and widely distributed non-native species in urban areas are Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood) and P. regalis Canard; both species also occur in rural areas but often at much lower densities.