Maber, J., Holland, P.T., & Tomkins, A. 1986 Evaluation of low-volume spraying in kiwifruit.. Proceedings of the New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference Boletin del Museo de Entomologia de la Universidad del Valle

Notes: Tests were carried out in New Zealand on several hydraulic orchard sprayers operated at low-volume settings. Mechanical evaluations included fan performance, tank agitation and spray nozzle characteristics. An adequate droplet size spectrum could be produced by selected hydraulic nozzles operated at 900 kPa and flows of 435 ml. In field trials on mature kiwi fruit [Actinidia chinensis], there were no differences in chemical leaf deposits, canopy penetration or residues on fruit at harvest when standard spray programmes were applied at 250, 500 or 2200 litres/ha. Populations of Stathmopoda spp. and Ctenopseustis spp. were low at all water rates. No fruits were infested with the diaspidid Hemiberlesia rapax, but a variety of mites (including Oribatida and Anystis baccarum) and mealybugs were found at fairly low uniform levels across all treatments, indicating that all application rates achieved a similar level of control. Low volume spray applications are suitable for kiwi fruit provided careful attention is paid to nozzle selection, calibration and the operation of the sprayer.