Lopes, D.J.H., Figueiredo, A., Macedo, N., Santos, A.M., Silva, L.L., Silva, D.D., Carvalho, M.C.F., & Mexia, A.M.M. 2008 Scale insects found in citrus orchards in Terceira Island, Azores.. Proceedings of the XI International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, Oeiras, Portugal, 24-27 September 2007. ISA Press Lisbon, Portugal 322 pp.

Notes: Abstract: In the sweet orange orchards of Terceira Island, Azores, several insect pests cause damage, namely scale insects, mites, Mediterranean fruit fly and thrips, reducing citrus production and contributing to low quality fruits. The INTERFRUT A project was aimed at a better understanding and identification of the phytosanitary problems on sweet orange orchards in the three major citrus production areas of Terceira Island (Biscoitos, Angra do Heroismo and Sao Sebastiao). From January 2004 to June 2005, samples were collected every two weeks in nine citrus orchards of each production area in order to identify scale insect species and monitor their seasonal evolution. Twelve scale insect species were identified, namely six Coccidae, Ceroplastes sinensis (Del Guercio), Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Coccus hesperidium (Linnaeus), Saissetia coffeae (Walker) and Saissetia oleae (Olivier), three Diaspididae, Chrysomphalus pinnulifer (Maskell), Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman), Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan), two Pseudococcidae, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), Planococcus citri (Risso), and one Margarodidae, Icerya purchasi Maskell.