Logan, D.P., & Thomson, C. 2002 Temperature-dependent development of parasitoids on two species of armoured scale insects.. New Zealand Plant Protection 55: 361-367.
Notes: [The 53rd Conference Proceedings of the New Zealand Plant Protection Society held in Rotorua, 12-15 August 2002. http://www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/nzpps/proceedings/02/02_361.pdf] The duration of development of the parasitoid Encarsia citrina (Craw) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) on its hosts greedy scale, Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock) and oleander scale, Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), and of Signiphora merceti (Malenotti) (Hymenoptera: Signiphoridae) on greedy scale was determined at five constant temperatures. Weibull functions were fitted to the cumulative distribution of parasitoid emergence times, and development rates for 5.50 and 95% emergence were calculated. Development rates for each parasitoid-scale combination were described by the same linear regression equations for 50% emergence, and for 95% emergence. Duration of development in the field was simulated using 13 months of hourly temperatures recorded at Te Puke.