Logan, D.P., Maher, B.J., & Rowe, C.A. 2017 Predation of diaspidid scale insects on kiwifruit vines by European earwigs, Forficula auricularia, and steel-blue ladybirds, Halmus chalybeus. BioControl 62: 469–479
Notes: Significant predation of diaspidid scale insects occurs in unsprayed kiwifruit crops. Two predators, Forficula auricularia L. (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) and Halmus chalybeus (Boisduval) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are likely to be important. In the field, predation of scale insects occurred mainly at night and preferentially on late-instar scale insects consistent with the feeding behaviour of F. auricularia, not H.chalybeus. The latter mainly fed on early instar insects during the day.