Liu, W., Xie, Y.P., Xue, J., Gao, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., & Tan, J. 2009 Histopathological changes of Ceroplastes japonicas infected by Lecanicillium lecanii.. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 101: 96-105

Notes: The infection process and pathological changes of Japanese wax scale, Ceroplastes japonicus Green, by the hyphomycete Lecanicillium lecanii (Zimmermann) Gams & Zare were investigated by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that L. lecanii generally infected the wax scale by penetrating the integument. The anal area, the body margin, around the base of mouthparts and legs, over the stigmatic furrow and the area around the vulva were susceptible places, while the wax test had an inhibitory effect on L. lecanii. Within 24 h after inoculation, conidia became attached to the cuticle, and within 48 h, hyphae adhered to the integument of the scale and their tips differentiated into specialized infection pegs. Penetration of the cuticle occurred within 72 h of inoculation; the fungus caused the insect cuticle to rupture and hyphae entered the insect body through these openings. Within 72 h after inoculation, L. lecanii entered the hemocoele of the scale and formed blastospores. After 96 h, blastospores were dispersed throughout the hemolymph and completely disrupted the hemocytes, resulting in damage of the cell nucleus and agglutination of chromatin. Concomitant to colonization of the hemolymph, the internal organs and tissues, e.g., tracheae, malpighian tubules nd muscle fibers, were also infected. As the infection progressed, the wax test and body changed color from white and red, respectively, to yellowish. After 144 h, the internal tissue structure was totally compromised and the insects died. After this time, new conidiophores bearing conidia were produced on the surface of the cadavers.