Liu, T., Kosztarab, M.P., & Rhoades, M. 1989 I. Biosystematics of the Adult Females of the Genus Chionaspis (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Diaspididae) of North America, with Emphasis on Polymorphism.. Studies on the Morphology and Systematics of Scale Insects -- No. 15 (Contribution No. 2 to a National Biological Survey). VAES Bulletin 88-2. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station Blacksburg, VA

Notes: Pages continue: 1-126. Abstract: Review of all 23 spp. of North American Chionaspis; emphasis on polymorphism associated with feeding sites; 17 spp. redescribed & illustrated in detail; 3 new spp. discovered: C. gilli, C. hamoni & C. styracis; hosts; zoogeography; new distribution & host records; affinities; synonymy: key to genera of subtribe Chionaspidina & key to spp. of Chionaspis; cluster analysis.