Lit, I.L. 2002a Wax- and resin-exuding cuticular pores and ducts of adult female lac insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Kerriidae).. Philippine Agricultural Scientist 85(2): 122-136.

Notes: The wax- and resin-exuding cuticular pares and ducts of adult females of Austrotachardia acaciae (Maskell), Austrotachardia sp. ex Cassinia, Kerria lacca (Kerr) and Paratachardina decorella (Maskell) were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM). These pores and ducts include the marginal and ventral duct clusters, perivaginal pore clusters, pores near or around the spiracles, canellae and brachial plates, spermatozoold ducts and ducts associated with the dorsal spine. Their structures are redescribed based on now details revealed by SEM. The perisetal micropores on the anal ring are also reviewed. The quinquelocular nature of many of the pores, despite their different names for different regions or body parts of lac insects strongly suggest homology with similar pores of Coccidae and related families. They, therefore, provide additonal evidence of common ancestry with the lecanoids. In addition to facilitating interpretation of these characters under the light microscope. The need for future studies utilizing transmission electron microscopy is recommended to identify the secretory cells and tissues associated with these pores and ducts, especially the dorsal spine.