Lambdin, P.L., & Joshi, P.A. 2001 Haemocytes of three scale insect species: Phenacoccus gossypii Townsend & Cockerell, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) and Dactylopius confusus (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea).. Entomologica 33(1999): 113-117.

Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS VIII International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at Wye College (U.K.), Aug. 31st - Sept. 6th, 1998.] An evaluation of the haemocytes in the cochineal scale, Dactylopius confusus (Cockerell), was completed and compared with those found in the mealybugs Phenacoccus gossypii Townsend & Cockerell and Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) to assess the potential sites of the dye pigment source. Four basic cell types were found in the two pseudococcids and five in the cochineal scale. The cell types common to all species included: prohaemocytes, oenocytoids, typical granulocytes and plasmatocytes. In addition, a modified granulocyte (poly-glyco-based granulocyte) was found to be specific to the cochineal scale and this produced rough endoplasmic reticulum derived granules that may be the source for the synthesis of carminic acid.