Kumar, V., Tewari, S.K., & Datta, R.K. 1997 Dermal pores and wax secretion in mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae). A pest of mulberry.. Italian Journal of Zoology 64(4): 307-311.

Notes: A scanning electron microscopy study was carried out on the dermal pores, ducts and wax secretion in the mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green. Observations reveal that the hollow sticky filamentous wax plays an important role in forming the ovisac in adult females and cocoon in males. The sticky nature of the wax helps attach the ovisac to the substrate. Trilocular pores produce long curly filamentous wax covering the entire body of the mealybug. The multilocular disc pores produce short curly filaments in females and long ones in males. Different types of dermal pores and ducts produce specific types of wax which protect the insect from its predators and enemies. The wax filaments protect the eggs from desiccation and provide physical protection, and also avoid the eggs sticking together inside the ovisac. Moreover, adult males have several pleural pores on the posterolateral sides, differing structurally from other stages and producing filamentous wax.