Koteja, J., Pyka-Fosciak, G., Vogelgesang, M., & Szklarzewicz, T. 2003 Structure of the ovary in Steingelia (Sternorrhyncha: Coccinea), and its phylogenetic implications.. Arthropod Structure & Development 32: 247-256.
Notes: The paired ovaries of Steingelia gorodetskia are composed of about 100 telotrophic ovarioles devoid of terminal filaments (scale insect autapomorphy). In structure they resemble those of other scale insects, but differ in the following details: (a) all ovarioles develop synchronously, (b) they are suspended to the lateral oviducts by means of long stalks, (c) the tropharium is tubular (unique in scale insects) (d) consists of 15-35 trophocytes, 2-4 previtellogenic oocytes that develop further, and numerous somatic prefollicular cells, (e) the vitellarium houses 2-4 linearly arranged vitellarial oocytes (versus one in most scale insects). Most of these features must be considered as plesiomorphic corresponding with the conditions in the most primitive Heteroptera. Bacterial endosymbionts have been found in some somatic cells, trophocytes, oocytes and in the nutritive cord. Present results support the opinion, based on external morphology, that the Steingeliidae are closely related to the Ortheziidae, Xylococcidae and Matsucoccidae.