Koteja, J., & Azar, D. 2008 Scale insects from Lower Cretaceous amber of Lebanon (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccinea). . Alavesia 2: 133-167.
Notes: Results of investigations on Lower Cretaceous Lebanese amber (125 - 135 myr) are presented, based on amber pieces containing coccid inclusions, collected in Mdeyrij/Hammana in central Lebanon and (one inclusion) in Jezzine in southern Lebanon. Seven groups at family level have been recognized, one extant, two supposedly extant, one extinct and three new families: Ortheziidae with Cretorthezia hammanaica gen. et sp. n.; Hammanococcidae fam. n. with Hammanococcus setosus gen. et sp. n; Lebanococcidae fam. n. with Lebanococcus longiventris gen. et sp. n.; ?Steingeliidae with Palaeosteingelia gen. n. and P. acrai sp. n. and P. caudate sp. n.; ?Electrococcidae with Apticoccus minutus gen. et. sp. n.; ?Putoidae with Palaeotupo danieleae gen. et sp. n.; and Pennygullaniidae fam. n. with Pennygullania electrina gen. et sp. n. All taxa have been based on alate males; two crawlers and two older stage larvae are believed to be congeneric with Cretorthezia,Hammanococcus, Palaeosteingelia and Pennygullania. All species bear peculiar features or combinations of characteristics, but there is no doubt as to their coccid affiliation. Archeococcid groups predominate in the Lebanese amber fauna, compared with neococcids which are represented by a form related to Putoidae and a species that cannot be placed in any extant group. Considering also impression fossils, the Lower Cretaceous fauna is represented by seven archeococcid and two neococcid families. Coccids similar to extant Steingeliidae constitute about 55 % of the Lebanese scale insects (18 inclusions); other groups are represented by 1-3 inclusions. Similar proportions have been found in New Jersey amber (with Grimaldiellidae dominating), Taimyr amber (Inkaidae dominating), and Baltic amber (Matsucoccidae prevailing). It is suggested that all or most of the species found in Lebanese amber fed on the resin exudating host, supposedly an araucarian, or a cheirolepidian.