Kosztarab, M.P., & Rhoades, M.H. 1999 Disjunct distribution and endemism in the Appalachian scale insect fauna (Homoptera: Coccinea).. Proceedings of the Appalachian Biogeography Symposium. Special Publication Number 7 (Virginia Museum of Natural History) 257 pp.

Notes: Apparent disjunct distribution was noted for eight species representing five families: Margarodidae (Xylococcus betulae), Pseudococcidae (Peliococcus flaveolus, P. serratus, Phenacoccus minimus and Puto kosztarabi), Cryptococcidae (Cryptococcus williamsi), Kermesidae (Allokermes nivalis) and Diaspididae (Abgrallaspis oxycoccus). Endemism to the Appalachians was found in Ortheziidae (Newsteadia americana), Pseudococcidae (Dysmicoccus patulae, Peliococcus saratogensis, Phenacoccus hortonorum, Puto kosztarabi, Trionymus lowryi), Kermesidae (Kermes prinus, Nanokermes folium) and Eriococcidae (Acanthococcus chilos).