Kondo, T. 2003 . A taxonomic review of the subfamily Myzolecaniinae (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Auburn University, Ph.D. Thesis Auburn, Alabama 288 pp.

Notes: [Ph.D. thesis; Michael L. Williams, advisor.] The soft scale insects of the subfamily Myzolecaniinae are of particular interest because of their biology, morphology and worldwide distribution. Scale insects in the Myzolecaniinae are known for their symbiotic relationships with ants (rarely stingless bees) that constantly tend, clean, protect and even transport them in exchange for nutritious honeydew. Presumably as a result of this relationship, many morphological features found in these scale insects have been reduced or lost entirely, resulting in morphological convergence of unrelated groups. In order to test the monophyly of the Myzolecaniinae, a taxonomic revision of the group was conducted. A total of 90 species, including 8 new genera and 9 new species is treated (see Table 1). Morphological descriptions and illustrations of the adult female stage of 34 representative species in 23 genera are presented. Eight new genera are proposed. The latter two genera belong to the tribe Paralecaniini in the subfamily Coccinae, however they are herein treated because of their superficial resemblance to some species in the Myzolecaniinae. Two genera: Megasaissetia and Neolecanium are synonymized with Toumeyella. In the process of the study, new morphological terms were introduced and defined. Dichotomous keys to separate all genera and species treated in the group are also presented. With the help of computer programs, a phylogenetic analysis using parsimony was conducted using morphological characters of both adult females and first-instar nymphs. The revision of the group resulted in the redefinition of the subfamily Myzolecaniinae and the proposal for the establishment of the new subfamily Toumeyellinae and the Alecanopsis-Group. The distribution of the newly proposed subfamily Toumeyellinae is restricted to the New World, whereas the redefined subfamily Myzolecaniinae is mostly distributed in the Old World, with one genus found in the New World. The Alecanopsis -group is represented in the Australian region.