Klatt, J., & Nennmann, H. 2002 Biologische Pflanzenschutzverfahren bei Zierpflanzen in Gartenbaubetrieben in Westfalen-Lippe. [Biological control measures in ornamentals in Westfalen-Lippe.]. Gesunde Pflanzen 54(3-4): 111-118.

Notes: Since 1997, the plant protection service of Westfalen-Lippe, Germany has regularly carried out projects on biological control in ornamentals in close cooperation with nurseries. Priorities are setup in the control of Thysanoptera, especially Frankliniella occidentalis, as well as white flies, fungus gnats (Diptera, Mycetophilidae) and mealybugs. In the biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis the predators are released only twice, but in large numbers, during the cultivation of the plants. This differs from the usually recommended procedure. With this method a population of predatory mites can establish on the plants, thus increasing their efficacy enormously. In the meantime, this method has been accepted in the horticultural practice as "Munsteraner Konzept". Entomopathogenic nematodes, predatory mites of the genus Hypoaspis and preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis have proven to be suitable in practice as antagonists of fungus gnats. The increasing occurrence of the cotton whitefly Bemisia tabaci on poinsettias and the loss of efficacy of insecticides enhances the importance of biological control measures against this pest. At present a focal point of the project work is the introduction and evaluation of various beneficial insects against the mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus in orchid cultures.