Kindlmann, P., & Dixon, A.F.G. 2003 Insect predator-prey dynamics and the biological control of aphids by ladybirds.. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods. FHTET-03-05. USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team Washington D.C. 573 pp.

Notes: [Conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, 14-18 January 2002.] Predators are generally considered to be less effective biological control agents than parasites. The famous exception is the control of the cottony-cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell, by the ladybird beetle Rodolia cardinalis.