Kim, D.H., Yang, J.Y., Jang, Y.S., Choi, K.S., Hyun, H.N., & Kim, D.S. 2011 Stage-specific population dynamics of cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae), in citrus orchards in Jeju, Korea. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 14:305–309
Notes: The cottony cushion scale, Icerya purchasi Maskell (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae), is a polyphagous, cosmopolitan and destructive pest of citrus. This study was conducted to obtain the stage-specific phenology of I. purchasi for seasonal management strategies in the field. Movement of crawlers (hatched nymphs) in egg sacs of overwintered females started in late May, peaked in early to mid-June, and was completed by late June. Generally, the 1st generation occurred from late May until late September and the overlapping second generation occurred from early September. The 1st nymphs in the 1st generation peaked in mid June. The 2nd nymphs showed peak activity in late July. The 3rd nymphs showed peak population in early September. The 1st generation adults peaked in mid September. In the 2nd generation, the 1st nymphs peaked in early October, the 2nd nymphs showed peak activity in late October, and the 3rd nymphs reached a plateau after mid October. The 2nd generation adults occurred from late October. Consequently, two life cycles were competed in the Jeju area. The average fertilities of I. purchasi were 623 and 247 crawlers per female in overwintered and summer generations, respectively. An average of 20.7% of all citrus orchards was infested with I. purchasi, with a mean of 3.9% infested trees in Jeju. These results should be useful in establishing management strategies for I. purchasi in citrus orchards.