Khalaf, J. 1987 Biological control of Iceria (Icerya?) purchasi in Fars.. Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliquées 54(1-2): pp. 47-48, 123-128.

Notes: The margarodid Icerya purchasi, which was collected from 12 food plants (mainly Citrus spp. and pomegranate), produced 4 generations a year in the Khabre and Shiraz regions of Iran. The life cycle lasted from 70 to 140 days. The coccinellid Vedalia cardinalis [Rodolia cardinalis] proved a very efficient predator of this scale insect and produced a generation every 19-22 days, unless prey was scarce or climatic conditions were unfavourable. The efficiency of the coccinellid for biological control resulted from the ability of both adults and larvae to attack all growth stages of the pest.