Kemabonta, K.A., & Odebiyi, J.A. 2003 Development and reproductive biology of Gyranusoidea tebygi Noyes (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).. ASSSET - Series A: Agriculture & Environment 3(2): 99-108.
Notes: The development and reproductive biology of G. tebygi on the mango mealybug Rastrococcus invadens were studied under fluctuating regimes of relative humidity (63-94%) and temperature (22-34(deg)C). Studies involved the development of G. tebygi and parasitism of R. invadens by G. tebygi. G. tebygi is a primary, solitary arrhenotokous and monoembryonic endoparasitoid. The developmental period of G. tebygi from oviposition to adult emergence ranged from 18 to 22 days in females. An egg, three larval instars, prepupal and pupal stages were found in the life cycle of G. tebygi. The first instar is caudate while the other two are hymenopteriform. The mean period of development from oviposition to eclosion was 3 days; first instar, 4 days; second instar 2.4 days; third instar 2 days; prepupa 2.5 days and pupa 5.2 days. Females oviposit on the first and second instar of R. invadens. Parasitization increased with an increase in the number of second instar hosts available until a host density of 25. When G. tebygi was provided with sugar and sucrose, natural honey or honey produced by the host mealybug, there was no significant differences on longevity. When deprived of these sources, and provided with water alone or completely starved, there was a nearly five-fold decrease in longevity.