Kairo, M.T.K., Pollard, G.V., Peterkin, D.D., & Lopez, V.F. 2000 Biological control of the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Caribbean.. Integrated Pest Management Reviews 5(4): 241-254.

Notes: The hibiscus mealybug, M. hirsutus, was first reported in the Caribbean in 1994 in Grenada. This was the first record of the insect as a major pest in the New World. By the beginning of 2001, the pest had spread to over 25 territories from Guyana and Venezuela in the south to the Bahamas in the north. The pest has also extended its distribution to Central America (Belize) and North America (California, USA). Early attempts to control the pest using pesticides resulted in failure and a classical biological control approach was adopted. Several exotic natural enemies were introduced but control was attributed to Anagyrus kamali and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. All projects in countries where biological control was implemented were successful. This paper reviews the remarkable success story. Information is provided on the distribution and factors leading to rapid spread of the pest, its pest status and resultant economic losses, and implementation of the biological control effort.