Jamieson, L.E., Dobson, S., Cave, J., & Stevens, P.S. 2002 A survey of armoured scale insects on kiwifruit shelter.. New Zealand Plant Protection 55: 354-360.

Notes: [The 53rd Conference Proceedings of the New Zealand Plant Protection Society held in Rotorua, 12-15 August 2002. http://www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/nzpps/proceedings/02/02_354.pdf] Scale infested kiwifruit continues to be a problem despite regular monitoring and spraying. Shelterbelt trees may be a source of scale insect infestations in kiwifruit vines. A survey of armoured scale insects in 12 common species of shelterbelt trees used in kiwifruit orchards was carried out. Bark samples were removed and the density of scale insects and species composition was determined. Japanese cedar as a shelterbelt species is unlikely to be a significant host for scale insects whereas Balsam poplar, willow and leyland cypress were more likely to host high populations. Shelterbelts in Northland, Auckland and Gisborne generally had higher levels of scale insects than the same species in the Bay of Plenty and Nelson. Greedy or latania scale (Hemiberlesia spp.) was found more frequently than oleander scale (Aspidiotus nerii).