Jahn, G.C. 2004 Effect of soil nutrients on the growth, survival and fecundity of insect pests of rice: an overview and a theory of pest outbreaks with consideration of research approaches.. Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 27(1): 115-122.

Notes: [Conference: Proceedings of the IOBC WPRS Working Group 'Multitrophic Interactions in Soil and Integrated Control', Bad Honnef, Germany, 1-4 June 2003 combined with selected papers from the meetings 'Thinking in Lines - from Research to Market Products', Einsiedeln, Switzerland, 2-4 November 2000 and 'Biological Mechanisms Affecting Nematode Management', Reading, UK, 5-6 September, 2001, Sikora, R.A., Gowen, S., Hauschild & R., Kiewnick, S. (Eds.).] The addition of nutrients to the soil, especially nitrogen, is known to increase the growth, survival and fecundity of many rice insect pests. Likewise, an environmental stress, such as drought, which increases the availability of soluble nitrogen in the plant could be expected to have similar effects on the insects' biology. An increase in pest populations normally leads to an increase in the immigration and reproductive rates of natural enemies so that pest outbreaks are prevented. If the population growth response of natural enemies is prevented or sufficiently delayed, however, then pest outbreaks may occur. Such interference in the response of natural enemies could result from insecticide use or from environmental conditions that permit predators of the natural enemies to enter the agroecosystem. This paper contains an overview of the literature on the relation between soil nutrients and insect pest outbreaks on rice, a proposal that the rice mealybug (Brevennia rehi) outbreaks of South Asia are the result of drought-induced changes in plant metabolism and ant-mealybugs mutualism, and a review of possible research approaches that can be used to understand how multitrophic interactions and nutritional effects can contribute to the occurrence of rice pest outbreaks.