Jactel, H., Menassieu, P., Vetillard, F., Gaunce, A.P., Samalens, J.C., & Brockerhoff, E.G. 2006 Tree species diversity reduces the invasibility of maritime pine stands by the bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi (Homoptera: Margarodidae).. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36(2): 314-323.
Notes: Species-rich plant communities may be more resistant to invasive herbivores because of reduced host-plant accessibility and increased natural enemy diversity and abundance. We tested these hypotheses in Corsica, a Mediterranean island recently invaded by the maritime pine bast scale, Matsucoccus feytaudi Duc., which causes widespread tree mortality in Pinus pinaster Ait. The endemic Matsucoccus pini Green infests Corsican pine, Pinus nigra laricio Poiret, where it is controlled by the native predatory bug, Elatophilus nigricornis Zetterstedt. As revealed by kairomone trapping, E. nigricornis was most abundant in pure Corsican pine in areas not yet colonized by M. feytaudi, and in pure maritime pine its density decreased with the distance from the nearest Corsican pine forest. The abundance of M. feytaudi was compared in five pairs of pure maritime pine and mixed maritime and Corsican pine stands. It was consistently higher in pure than in mixed maritime pine stands, whereas E. nigricornis showed the opposite pattern, and relative differences were correlated with the proportion of Corsican pine in the mixture. The predation by E. nigricornis was manipulated in pure maritime pine stands using synthetic attractants of the predator. Matsucoccus feytaudi density was significantly reduced in maritime pines baited with kairomone dispensers.