Hodgson, C.J., & Henderson, R.C. 2004 Coccidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccoidea): adult males, pupae and prepupae of indigenous species.. Fauna of New Zealand No. 51: 229 pp.

Notes: The soft scale family Coccidae is one of ten families of plant sucking scale insects present in New Zealand. The adult females are relatively long lived (normally at least a month or more), and it is this stage that is usually found and thus most often used to identify any given species. The adult females differ greatly from the adult males and pass through 2 or 3 immature (nymphal) stages before finally moulting into a stage that is rather nymph-like but develops ovaries and can reproduce. Adult females lack wings and tend to have relatively short legs and antennae. In addition, the division of the body into head, thorax and abdomen is not obvious. It is this stage that is economically important. This volume of the Fauna of New Zealand describes all the known adult males, pupae, and prepupae of indigenous soft scales of New Zealand.