Hodgson, C.J., & Gounari, S. 2006 Morphology of Marchalina hellenica (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Marchalinidae) from Greece, with a discussion on the identity of M. caucasica Hadzibeyli from the Caucasus.. Zootaxa 1196: 1-32.
Notes: The morphology of the adult female, 1st-, 2nd- and 3rd-instar female nymphs, plus the pupa (4th-instar male) and apterous adult male of M. hellenica (Gennadius), are described and illustrated, along with the prepupa (3rd-instar male) of M. caucasica Hadzibeyli. A key is provided to separate these stages. The adult female and 3rd-instar female of M. caucasica were also seen and considered to be identical with the same stages of M. hellenica. The morphology of the other stages of M. caucasica (as described by Hadzibeyli) are compared with those of M. hellenica described here and it is noted that there are some possibly significant differences in the 2nd- instar and apterous adult males. In addition, the known biology of these two species is also discussed and it is concluded that, despite the similarities of the adult females, these populations could still represent two separate species. A key is provided to separate the adult females of margarodoids on pines in the eastern Mediterranean.