Hodgson, C.J., & Foldi, I. 2005 Preliminary phylogenetic analysis of the Margarodidae sensu Morrison and related taxa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) based on adult male morphology.. Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, held at Plant Protection Research Institute, Adana/ Turkey, 19-23 April 2004. Adana Zirai Muscadele Arastirma Enstitusu. Adana, Turkey. 408 pp.
Notes: Scale insects are divided into two informal groups, the archaeococcoids (taxa which have many characters interpreted as ancestral), and the neococcoids which includes the rest of the Coccoidea and which are generally considered to have evolved from the archaeococcoids. However, the taxa that fall within the archaeococcoids vary depending on the authority. In addition, at the present time, there is much discussion as to whether the higher taxa within the "Margarodidae" should be considered families or of a lower status. This paper presents the preliminary results from a study of the macropterous adult males of 70 taxa within and close to the archaeococcoids, including genera of uncertain placement, such as Phenacoleachia, Puto, Steingelia and Pityococcus. The results suggest that: (a) the family Margarodidae sensu Morrison is paraphyletic; (b) the Matsucoccidae appear to be sister to all other families and not closely related to the Xylococcinae, as suggested by Morrison; (c) the hypogeal margarodids (Margarodini of Morrison) form a separate clade and their family status should be recognised; (d) the subfamily Margaroclinae sensu Morrison is polyphyletic; (e) Callipappus appears to be closer to the Xylococcinae than to the Margaroclinae; (f) Neocoelostoma does not appear to be a member of the Coelostomidiinae; (g) the Monophlebinae and Coelostomidiinae appear to be closely related, here forming a single clade; (h) the archaeococcoids should probably include all of Morrison's margarodid tribes except Steingeliini, plus the Ortheziidae; (i) Phenacoleachia, Puto and Steingelia appear to be closely related and each warrants subfamily or family status; U) Phenacoleachia, Puto, Steingelia and Pityococcus all fall within a large clade which also includes the mealybugs and Rhizoecus, and (k) the tribe Rhizoecini falls outside the family Pseudococcidae and may need to be given family status.