Gullan, P.J., Miller, D.R., & Cook, L.G. 2005 Gall-inducing scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea).. Biology, Ecology and Evolution of Gall-Inducing Arthropods. Vol. 1. Science Publishers New Hampshire 774 pp. (2 vols.)
Notes: The scale insects or coccoids are morphologically specialized plant parasites that mostly either live under a protective cover derived from their waxy secretions and/or old exuviae or live concealed by plant tissue, including within galls of a diversity of forms. Out of more than 7,000 described species of scale insects, about 230 species (or about 280 if undescribed taxa are included) induce galls that range in complexity from simple pits and foliage distortions to woody, enclosed structures of elaborate morphology. Only 10 of the twenty or more families of scale insects induce galls and the highest proportion of galling taxa (approximately 45 percent of described species and 57 percent of recognized species) belong to the Eriococcidae. Almost all eriococcid gallers occur in Australia, where their major host-plant family is Myrtaceae. Gall-inducing Pseudococcidae have radiated in Hawaii. For other coccoid families, the gall-inducing taxa are scattered among diverse genera and show no particular patterns of distribution or host use except that gallicolous Lecanodiaspididae are most common in Australia. Details of the types of galls formed and the roles of male and female are discussed in this paper.