Gruwell, M.E., von Dohlen, C., Patch, K., & Normark, B.B. 2005 Preliminary PCR survey of bacteria associated with scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea).. Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, held at Plant Protection Research Institute, Adana/ Turkey, 19-23 April 2004. Adana Zirai Muscadele Arastirma Enstitusu. Adana, Turkey. 408 pp.

Notes: ABSTRACT: Nearly all sternorrhynchan insects rely on bacterial endosymbionts to supplement a nutritionally poor diet of sap or plant material. The endosymbionts of aphids, psyllids, whiteflies and mealybugs havebcen well-characterized, but the apparent diversity of endosymbionts in most families of scale insects remains unexplored. Here we report 16S bacterial DNA sequences amplified from genomic DNA of 16 species of diaspidids, and 8 other coccoid species in 4 different families. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences, together with 34 other bacterial 16s sequences obtained from GenBank, indicates that bacterial associates of sampled Coccidae and Putoidae are Proteobacteria, while bacterial associates of sampled Eriococcidae, Margarodidae, and Diaspididae are flavobacteria.