Grové, T., Schoeman, P.S., & De Beer, M.S. 2014 Arthropod Pests of Litchi in South Africa. Acta Horticulturae 1029: 409-416

Notes: The litchi, Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae) is subject to damage by a range of arthropod pests, the most important of which are the litchi moth, Cryptophlebia peltastica (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and fruit flies (Ceratitis spp.) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The damage caused by the two moth species is similar. Eggs are laid on the fruit skin and the newly hatched larva eats through the skin of the fruit and into the seed. Eggs are not laid during the early developmental stages of the fruit. More damage is caused by C. peltastica in comparison to T. leucotreta. The Natal fruit fly, Ceratitis rosa (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the dominant species collected in traps in litchi orchards and most properly responsible for most damage caused to fruit. Damage begins when the female fly punctures the skin and lays eggs underneath it. Fruit fermentation occurs at the sting mark and the litchi fruit is a poor host for the development of fruit flies. The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi (Hemiptera: Coreidae) causes drop of immature green fruit and also feeds on mature fruit. The mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), the Nigra scale, Parasaissetia nigra (Hemiptera: Coccidae), a Saissetia sp. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and the Seychelles scale, Icerya seychellarum (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) were the common scales found on litchi. These scales are of minor importance in litchi production. Various species of fruit chafer beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are associated with litchi fruit. They are especially attracted to fermenting fruit and are of minor importance.