Grafton-Cardwell, E.E., Gu, P., & Montez, G.H. 2005 Effects of temperature on development of vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant).. Biological Control 32(3): 473-478.

Notes: The effect of temperature on the development of the vedalia beetle, Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), fed Icerya purchasi Maskell (Homoptera: Margarodidae) was studied under controlled laboratory conditions. Adults exposed to temperatures of 25, 28, 31, 34, and 37(deg)C for 72 h showed 95-100% survival, however egg production was significantly reduced at 34 and 37(deg)C. In addition, eggs maintained at 34(deg)C showed reduced hatch and survival of larvae, and eggs held at 37(deg)C failed to hatch. The duration of each developmental stage and survival of each stage were measured at 10, 14, 18, 22, and 25(deg)C. There was no egg eclosion at 10(deg)C. The developmental time from egg to adult emergence decreased from 79 to 18 days for temperatures from 14 to 25(deg)C. The sex ratio was unaffected by these temperatures. The lower developmental temperature threshold of R. cardinalis was estimated to be 10.8(deg)C and the degree-day accumulation was calculated as 279 for development from egg to adult eclosion. These results will guide further research designed to optimize management of vedalia populations in the San Joaquin Valley of California.