Grafton-Cardwell, E.E. 2006 New developments in the San Joaquin Valley California citrus IPM program.. Bulletin OILB/SROP (Sect. Reg. Ouest Palearctique) 29(3): 5-14.
Notes: [International Conference on Integrated Control in Citrus Fruit Crops. Proceedings of the meeting of the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control of Noxious Animals and Plants, West Palearctic Regional Section (IOBC/WPRS) Working Group, Lisbon, Portugal, 26-27 September 2005.] The majority of citrus, primarily Navels and Valencias for fresh market, is now grown in the central San Joaquin Valley of California, USA. In the late 1990s, a number of new insecticides (pyrethroids, insect growth regulators, neonicotinoids, and fermentation products) were registered for control of citrus pests. These insecticides have improved worker safety, reduced environmental effects, and improved the survival of some natural enemies by greatly reducing organophosphate and carbamate usage. There are, however, some problems with integrating these new insecticides into the California citrus pest management programme. Firstly, the two most commonly used insecticides, pyriproxyfen for California red scale (Aonidiella aurantii) control and spinosad for citrus thrips (Scirtothrips citri) control, are highly selective for these two pests. Secondly, many of the new insecticides are toxic to the predatory vedalia beetle (Rodolia cardinalis). Thus, cottony cushion scale (Icerya purchasi) problems have increased. Finally, exotic pests continue to invade the region, for example, glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), citrus peelminer (Marmara gulosa) and citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella). These pests require the development of management tactics that must be integrated into the existing IPM programme. The use of more selective insecticides, the toxicity of new insecticides to coccinellids, and the invasion of new pests has increased the complexity of the IPM programme for San Joaquin Valley citrus.