Goolsby, J.A. 1994 . Biological Control of Longtailed Mealybug, Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Interior Plantscape. Texas A & M University, Ph. D. Thesis Texas 168 pp.

Notes: Ph. D. Thesis. [Estrategía de control de escama de San José. ; James B. Woolley, Advisor.] The focus of this research was to evaluate natural enemies for their effectiveness against longtailed mealybug (LTMB), Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni-Tozzetti), in the interior plantscape. Inundative and inoculative releases were utilized. An inundative release program was developed using a predatory green lacewing, Chrysoperla rufilabris (Burmeister). Cards with commercially available C. rufilabris eggs were developed that enabled efficient dispersal. Paired comparisons were used to measure the efficacy of the lacewings released. Monthly releases of lacewing eggs, on cards containing 150 eggs each, reduced longtailed mealybug populations below levels at which aesthetic injury occurred. Three parasites were evaluated in model interior plantscapes: Anagyrus fusciventris (Girault), Pseudaphycus angelicus (Howard), and Tetracnemoidea sydneyensis (Timberlake). Sets of pothos ivy infested with P. longispinus were located in paired locations within buildings. One set in each pair received a single parasite species; the other set served as a control. The density of P. longispinus at each location was monitored bi-weekly for one year. Anagyrus fusciventris and P. angelicus were the two most effective parasites in the interior plantscape evaluation and each suppressed population levels below aesthetic injury levels in the second, third, and fourth quarters of the experiment. Tetracnemoidea sydneyensis was poorly adapted to this environment. The biology and behavior of A. fusciventris and P. angelicus were further evaluated under laboratory conditions. Both species produced progeny from 2nd, 3rd and adult LTMB, and adults were the most suitable stage for oviposition. Female A. fusciventris had a mean longevity of 5.6 days and produced a mean of 18.1 progeny, compared to P. angelicus which had a mean longevity of 8.1 days and produced a mean of 28.2 progeny. The gregarious P. angelicus produced female progeny from all instars, whereas A. fusciventris showed evidence of sex allocation based on host size by producing female progeny from only the larger size class II adult LTMB. Pseudaphycus angelicus produced significantly more female progeny from the smaller size class I adult LTMB. The behavioral attributes measured were time spent grooming and walking, numbers of encounters and stings, and time off the plant. None of the behaviors were found to be significantly different for the two species, except number of encounters, which was higher for P. angelicus. In balance, A. fusciventris and P. angelicus were found to be closely matched as parasites of LTMB in the interior plantscape.