Gillani, W.A., & Copland, M.J.W. 2001 Defensive behaviour of the longtailed mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against the brown lacewing Sympherobius fallax Navas (Neuroptera: Hemerobiidae).. Entomologica 33(1999): 279-285.
Notes: [Special Issue: Proceedings of the ISSIS VIII International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies held at Wye College (U.K.), Aug. 31st - Sept. 6th, 1998.] The defensive tactics of 2nd- and 3rd-instar nymphal and adult Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) against larval Sympherobius fallax Navas were studied. When attacked by 1st- and 2nd-instar predators, these three mealybug stages were able to secrete ostiolar fluids which spread and hardened on the mouthparts of the predators; 1st-instar mealybugs appeared to be unable to secrete ostiolar fluids. Adult mealybugs also successfully defended themselves against 1st-instar predators by simply pushing them away with their cerarial wax fringe. Of the lacewing stages, 3rd-instar S. fallax larvae were the most successful at overcoming the defense tactics of P. longispinus.