Germain, J.-F. 2011 Les cochenilles, voyageuses au long cours. [Scale Insects, long term travelers].. Phytoma 647: 31-34

Notes: Scale insects, Hemiptera Sternorrhynca, are currently divided into about thirty families. The taxonomy of this group is constantly evolving throug the works combining morphological and molecular studies. Half of the species developing in France that have an economic importance are alien species. it is currently difficult to quantify the agro-economic importance of scale insects that after the injurious invasions of the early twentieth century seemed to have become secondary pests. The reduction of allowed substances for the control, changes in farming techniques, changes in temperature mean that we are witnessing a resurgence of the scale insects as injurious pests.