Gavrilov-Zimin, I.A., & Danzig, E.M. 2012 [Taxonomic position of the genus Puto Signoret (Homoptera: Coccinea: Pseudococcidae) and separation of higher taxa in Coccinea] . Zoosystematica Rossica 21(1): 97-111
Notes: Taxonomic characters of the families Pseudococcidae Cockerell, 1898, Putoidae Beadsley, 1969, Pennygullaniidae Koteja et Azar, 2008 and two superfamilies of Coccinea are discussed in view of phylogenetic meaning of these characters. It is shown that Putoidae Beadsley, 1969 is an unavailable name (nomen nudum); moreover, Putoidae sensu Williams et al., 2011 as a separate family considered in the superfamily Orthezioidea (= an informal group of "archeococcids"), is a taxonomic paradox that lies outside of both cladistic and evolutionary concepts in taxonomy and ignores the majority of well-known and carefully proven facts. There is not a single unique apomorphic character in the monotypic family Putoidae; all characters of the genus Puto Signoret, 1875 are plesiomorphies of all scale insects or synapomorphies with other mealybugs or with the closely related Ceroputo Šulc, 1898. Ceroputo is accepted here as a subgenus of Puto. The monotypic fossil family Pennygullaniidae is considered by us a new subjective synonym of Pseudococcidae. The taxonomic and nomenclatural problems connected with the higher taxa of scale insects and other groups of Homoptera are briefly discussed.