Garber, A.I., Kupper, M., Laetsch, D.R., Weldon, S.R., Ladinsky, M.S., Bjorkman, P.J., & McCutcheon, J.P. 2021 The Evolution of Interdependence in a Four-Way Mealybug Symbiosis. Genome Biology and Evolution 13(8): doi:10.1093/gbe/evab123


  • bacteria
  • symbiont
  • Notes: Our work reveals the rapid emergence of metabolic interdependence between these two nascent endosymbionts, their partner bacterial cosymbiont in whose cytoplasm they reside, and their insect host cell. Our work reaffirms that intracellular bacteria rapidly adapt to a host-restricted lifestyle through breakage or loss of redundant genes.