Frank, S.D. 2020 Review of the direct and indirect effects of warming and drought on scale insect pests of forest systems. Forestry (Oxford) 94(2)2021: 167-180


  • ecology
  • Notes: Warming can have direct effects on the life history, fitness and population dynamics of many scale insect species by increasing development rate, survival or fecundity. These direct benefits can increase the geographic distribution of scale insects and their consequences for tree health. This paper reviews recently published studies on this subject..