Franco, J.C., Suma, P., Borges da Silva, E., Blumberg, D., & Mendel, Z. 2004 Management strategies of mealybug pests of citrus in Mediterranean countries.. Phytoparasitica 32(5): 507-522.
Notes: Six mealybug species are reported as citrus pests in the Mediterranean basin: the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri, the citriculus mealybug Pseudococcus cryptus, the long-tailed mealybug Pseudococcus longispinus, the citrophilus mealybug Pseudococcus calceolariae, the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni and the spherical mealybug Nipaecoccus viridis. Some of these species were recently introduced in the region and are still expanding their distribution, e.g., N. viridis. Mealybugs are usually occasional or potential pests of citrus. However, some species are considered key pests in certain situations. Pest status may change with pest management systems and/or other ecological alterations. Management strategies of mealybug populations in citrus orchards have been generally based on biological control (mostly as classical biological control and to a lesser extent as augmentative releases). However, chemical controls are widely used mainly due to low adaptation of the principal natural enemies to the climatic conditions in the Mediterranean. The application of pheromones is still restricted to the monitoring of the citrus mealybug, whose sex pheromone is commercially available. Mass trapping and mating disruption should be considered for use in IPM programmes as an alternative to the supplementary chemical control. Enhancement of biological control through the management of ant populations is another possible control measure. The management strategies of mealybug pests of citrus and the possible levels of integration of different tactics based on the pest status are discussed.