Follett, P.A. 2004 Generic vapor heat treatments to control Maconellicoccus hirsutus(Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).. Journal of Economic Entomology 97(4): 1263-1268.

Notes: Vapor heat treatments were developed against life stages of the mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Treatments tested were 47 degrees C for 5-50 min in 5-min increments and 49 degrees C for 3, 5, 8, 10, and 12 min. All tests were conducted with mixed age M. hirsutus on Chinese pea, Pisum sativum L. Treatment at 47 degrees C required 45 min to kill all M. hirsutus, whereas treatment at 49degreesC required 10 min. The adult female and nymphal stages were the most heat tolerant at 47 degrees C, but the egg stage was the most heat tolerant at 49 degrees C. Use of the vapor heat treatments on other commodities will require achieving or exceeding the proper temperature and duration at all locations on the host where M. hirsutus may reside.