Flanders, S.E. 1971 Multiple parasitism of armored coccids (Homoptera) by host-regulative aphelinids (Hymenoptera); ectoparasites versus endoparasites.. Canadian Entomologist 103: 857-872.
Notes: When a host-regulative ectoparasite and a host-regulative endoparasite compete for the same host population (multiple parasitism) the former largely replaces the latter when the host's density is high, the ectoparasite then being relatively numerous and the endoparasite scarce. However, after the ectoparasite has reduced the host population to a low density the converse is true, the endoparasite being more numerous. This difference is an effect of the endoparasite being able to operate at lower host densities: an essential adaptation if it is to survive competition with a host-regulative ectoparasitic population. Species mentioned include Aonidiella aurantii, A. citrina, A. orientalis, Aspidiotus destructor, A. excisus, A. hederae, A. lataniae, A. palmae, A. perniciosus, A. rapax, Chrysomphalus aonidum, C. bifasciculatus, C. dictyospermi, Fiorinia proboscidaria, F. theae, Lepidosaphes beckii, L. gloverii, Morganella longispina, Parlatoria cinerea, P. pergandii, P. proteus, P. sinensis, P. zizyphus, Phenacaspis pinifoliae, Pinnaspis aspidistrae, Pseudaonidea duplex, P. trilobitiformis, Unaspis citri and U. yanonensis.