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Notes: This chapter is a review of the culture and pest problems of cultivated grapes worldwide, noting their origin in Asia Minor. Among the pests discussed are the Pseudococcidae (Maconellicoccus hirsutus, Planococcus citri, P. ficus, P. longispinus, Pseudococcus affinis, P. maritimus) and the Coccidae (Parthenolecanium corni, P. persicae).