El-Serwy, S.A., & Guerrieri, E. 2005a The seasonal fluctuations of parasitism and parasitic complex of Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on sugarcane in Egypt. (Abstract only).. Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Scale Insect Studies, held at Plant Protection Research Institute, Adana/ Turkey, 19-23 April 2004. Adana Zirai Muscadele Arastirma Enstitusu. Adana, Turkey 408 pp.

Notes: The seasonal parasitism and parasitic complex of the red-striped soft scale, Pulvinaria tenuivalvata (Newstead), in Egypt was studied. Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) leaves infested by the soft scale were collected weekly from untreated fields in Atfieh region at Giza govenorate, Middle Egypt, from September 1999 to February 2000 and from September till December in 200 I and 2002. The highest rate of paratisism was recorded in 2001 (55.80/0) whilst during 1999-2000 and 2002 values were 43.50/0 and 370/0, respectively. Ten new record species of primary parasitoids (Hymenoptera), i.e. Coccophagus semicircularis (Forster) and Coccophagus obscurus (Forster) (Aphelinidae), Metaphycus flavus (Howard), Metaphycus citricola Annecke & Mynhardt, Microterys nietneri (Motschulsky), Parechthrodryinus coccidiphagus (Mercet), Cerapterocerus mirabilis Westwood, Comperia alfieri (Mercet), Diversinervus elegans Silvestri and Mahencyrtus comara (Walker) (Encyrtidae) and four new record hyperparasitoids (Hymenopteraa), i. e. Pachyneuron muscarum L. (Pteromalidae), Marietta leopardina Motschulsky and Ablerus chionaspidis (Howard) (= A. greatheadi Annecke & Insley) (Aphelindae) and Cheiloneurus sp. (Encyrtidae) were identified. Ratios between primary and secondary parasitoids collected were 99: I (1999-2000), 94: 6 (2001-2002) and 96: 4 (2002-2003). M. flavus and M. citricola seem to be the most promising parasitoids to be used as biocontrol agents against the red-striped soft scale on sugarcane in Egypt. The first species was more abundant between late October and early March (1999- 2000) and during mid and late September- mid February (2001-2002 and 2002- 2003); in the same period the most abundant hyperparasitoid was P. muscarum. There has been a general decrease of primary parasitoids and increase of hyperparasitoids from 1999-2000 to 2002-2003. Competition between primary parasitoids species resulted in a decrease of M. flavus and C. semicircularis emerged from 1999-2000 to 2002-2003 seasons; their activity was probably replaced by that of M. ciricola whose rate of parasitism increased from 120/0 to 320/0 in the same period. However, as stated above a general increase of hyperparasitism could have played a role in the decrease of M. flavus and C. semicircularis. In 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 P. coccidiphagus appeared in the parasitic complex with a 40/0 rate of parasitism. M. nietneri parasitic activity had a peak of 90/0 in 2001-2002, in comparison to 20/0 recorded in the two other seasons. D. elegans, C. alfieri, M. comara and C. mirabilis as well as C. obscurus emerged only in a few numbers in different seasons. Competition between secondary parasitoids species resulted in a decrease of M. leopardina (about 140/0) and in an increase of P. muscarum (150/0) during the second season. However, their activity was somewhat replaced by that of Cheiloneurus sp., who dominated in 2002- 2003.