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Notes: The urban environments are the most complex, diverse, and discontinuous due to the many introduced ornamental plants in fragmented patches. These environments offer special opportunities for IPM and biological control. There are problems in assessing aesthetic and nuisance pests. There is a higher and more diversified pesticide usage per acre than in any crop of forest, especially prior to the 1970s, with regard for IPM or biological controls. Lecanium corni, a pest on fruit trees on Mackinac Island, Michigan, and Chionaspis pinifoliae in South Lake Tahoe, California are two examples discussed. Other species listed in a table of urban pests include Antonina graminis, Aonidiella aurantii, A. citrina, Asterodiaspis variolosum, Asterolecanium pustulans, Chloropulvinaria psidii, Coccus hesperidum, Cornuaspis beckii, Icerya purchasi, Lecanium corni, Maconellicoccus hirsutus, Nipaecoccus nipae, N. viridis, Orthezia insignis, Parasaissettia nigra, Parlatoria oleae, Planococcus citri, P. kenyae, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona, Pseudococcus comstocki, P. fragilis, P. longispinus, Pulvinaria delottoi, Pulvinariella mesembryanthemi, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus, Saissettia coffeae and S. oleae.