Daane, K.M., Cooper, M.L., Triapitsyn, S.V., Walton, V.M., Yokota, G.Y., Haviland, D.R, Bentley, W.J., Godfrey, K.E., & Wunderlich, L.R. 2008a Vineyard managers and researchers seek sustainable solutions for mealybugs, a changing pest complex.. California Agriculture 167-171
Notes: Mealybugs have become increasingly important vineyard pests - a result of their direct damage to the vine, their role in transmitting grapevine leafroll viruses, and the costs for their control. Numerous mealybug species are found in vineyards, and each has different biological traits that affect sustainable control options. We review the mealybug pests and their natural enemies to provide some clarification about current trends in biological control tactics and needed directions for future work. The grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), is one of the oldest California vineyard pests (Essig 1914). The longtailed mealybug, Pseudococcus Longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti) is believed to be of Austro-Oriental origin. The origin of the obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), is unknown, and both Australia and South America have been suggested. Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Ferrisia gilli Gullan. The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green).