Cook, L.G. 2000 Extraordinary and extensive karyotypic variation: A 48-fold range in chromosome number in the gall-inducing scale insect Apiomorpha (Hemiptera: Coccoidea : Eriococcidae).. Genome 43(2): 255-263.

Notes: Chromosome number reflects strong constraints on karyotype evolution, unescaped by the majority of animal taxa. Although there is commonly chromosomal polymorphism among closely related taxa, very large differences in chromosome number are rare. This study reports one of the most extensive chromosomal ranges yet reported for an animal genus. Apiomorpha Rubsaamen (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae), an endemic Australian gall-inducing scale insect genus, exhibits an extraordinary 48-fold variation in chromosome number with diploid numbers ranging from 4 to about 192. Diploid complements of all other eriococcids examined to date range only from 6 to 28. Closely related species of Apiomorpha usually have very different karyotypes, to the extent that the variation within some species-groups is as great as that across the entire genus. There is extensive chromosomal variation among populations within 17 of the morphologically defined species of Apiomorpha indicating the existence of cryptic species-complexes. The extent and pattern of karyotypic variation suggests rapid chromosomal evolution via fissions and (or) fusions. It is hypothesized that chromosomal rearrangements in Apiomorpha species may be associated with these insects' tracking the radiation of their species host genus, Eucalyptus.