Chong, J.H., Van Lersal, M.W., & Oetting, R.D. 2004 Effects of elevated carbon dioxide levels and temperature on the life history of the Madeira mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).. Journal of Entomological Science 39(3): 387-397.

Notes: Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and temperatures are increasing and, thus, the interactions between insect herbivores and their host plants in environments of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature must be examined. We investigated the combined effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (400 and 700 micro mol mol-1) and temperature (20, 25 and 30 deg C) on the development, survival and reproduction of two generations of the Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis, and the chemical composition of chrysanthemum, Dendranthema x grandiflora [Chrysanthemum morifolium, syn. [Dendranthema morifolium]], leaves. The development of the mealybugs was temperature-driven and was not influenced by the CO2 level or the number of generations. At higher temperatures, the duration to egg eclosion and the developmental time of adult females and males were significantly shortened. More eggs survived to adulthood at higher temperatures. Temperature had no influence on the egg eclosion percentage. The reproductive period of females was shortest at 30 deg C, while fecundity was highest at 20 deg C. There was a significantly higher proportion of females at the end of the experiment at lower than at higher temperatures. Elevated CO2 level and temperature did not change the chemical composition (nitrogen and carbon concentrations, and carbon-nitrogen ratio) of the host plants. Relative water content of the leaf tissues was higher at 30 deg C than other temperature treatments. Our results show that the effects of temperature on the biology of the Madeira mealybug were stronger than that of the elevated CO2 concentration.