Chong, J.H., Oetting, R.D., & Van Iersel, M.W. 2003 Temperature effects on the development, survival, and reproduction of the Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on chrysanthemum.. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 96(4): 539-543.
Notes: The Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), has become an increasingly damaging pest in greenhouse ornamental production. Current management tactics of P. madeirensis require a regular chemical application schedule targeting the immature stages. Knowledge of the life cycle of P. madeirensis is important to the success of its management program. We investigated the effects of constant temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 degrees C) on the development, survival, and reproduction of P. madeirensis on chrysanthemum (Dendrathema x grandiflora Kitam.). We failed to establish colonies at 30-40 degrees C. Between 15 and 25 degrees C, the duration of development of all developmental stages were shortened at higher temperatures. The total duration of development of female mealybugs was approximate to 30 d at 25 degrees C, 46 d at 20 degrees C, and 66 d at 15 degrees C. Developmental time of males was 3-9 d longer than females. Survival rates of individual instars ranged between 88 and 100% and were not influenced by temperature. Overall, >75% of eggs completed development to adulthood. Female mealybugs made up 50% of the adult populations in all temperature treatments. Adult longevity at 25 degrees C was approximate to 3 and 20 d for males and ovipositing females, respectively. Females at 20 degrees C produced the highest number of eggs (491 +/- 38 eggs/female).