Chong, J.H., & Oetting, R.D. 2006b Influence of temperature and mating status on the development and fecundity of the mealybug parasitoid, Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope Noyes and Menezes (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).. Environmental Entomology 35(5): 1188-1197.

Notes: Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope Noyes and Menezes (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is a new parasitoid of the Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), a common pest in the greenhouses of the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35C.C) and mating status (virgin and mated) on the life history of this parasitoid. Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope is an arrhenotokous parasitoid with the mated females producing progeny with the proportion of males between 0.34 and 0.41. Parasitism rates ranged between 17 and 40% and increased with temperature. The number of progeny produced by the mated parasitoids increased from 8 at 15C.C to 11 at 30C.C, which were 10 and 50% lower, respectively, than that of virgin parasitoids. For females of either mating status, brood sizes averaged between 3.1 and 4.9 progeny per mummy. More than 94% of parasitoids successfully survived to adulthood between 15 and 30C.C. No parasitoid completed development at 35C.C. The developmental times of Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope were 55, 25, 17, and 12 d at 15, 20, 25, and 30C.C, respectively. Using a linear thermal summation model and a nonlinear Logan 6 model, we determined that the lower developmental threshold, upper developmental threshold, and optimal temperature to be 11.1, 35.0, and 30.3C.C, respectively, and the thermal constant was 222.2 DD. The lifetime fecundity of Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope were 58-71 progeny between 15 and 30C.C. Mated females had significantly higher lifetime fecundity than virgin females. We expect Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope to survive and reproduce within a temperature range commonly maintained in greenhouses.