Allan, D.J., Charles, J.G., Froud, K.J., & van den Brink, R. 2009 Mealybugs and the spread of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) in a New Zealand vineyard. Australasian Plant Pathology 38: 576–583
Notes: The spread of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) through a newly planted block of Merlot and Chardonnay grapevines in a commercial vineyard was measured between 1998 and 2003. The population changes of the mealybug vector (Pseudococcus longispinus) were recorded over the same period in 12–17-year-old GLRaV-3-infected grapevines immediately adjacent to two sides of the new block. Relationships between the spread of GLRaV-3 and mealybug numbers were examined. It seems probable that the observed spread of grapevine leafroll disease in any vineyard may be due to a combination of mealybug natural crawling, passive assistance from humans or animals, and aerial dispersal.