Caltagirone, L.E. 1999 Adaptations of insects to modes of life.. Ecological Entomology. John Wiley & Sons New York 756 pp.

Notes: Aonidiella aurantii given as an example of scramble competition. Icerya purchasi is mentioned as an example of an adaptation in reproduction in which both eggs and sperm are produced in the same individual (hermaphrodite) in which fertilization takes place. The occasional male (as a result of an unfertilized egg) is capable of copulating with hermaphrodites, but hermaphrodites are incapable of fertilizing one another. Another adaptation mentioned is the parasitization of Coccophagoides utilis, an endoparasite of the olive scale, Parlatoria oleae, in which mated females search for scales into which they lay fertilized eggs that develop into females.